河南师范大学学报(自然科学版)

2022, v.50;No.226(05) 148-156

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我国优秀女子100 m栏运动员关键技术诊断及优化训练策略研究
Research on key technical diagnosis and optimal training strategy of Chinese elite women's 100 m hurdlers

程泓人;钟亚平;
Cheng Hongren;Zhong Yaping;Sports Big-data Research Center, Wuhan Sports University;

摘要(Abstract):

以我国现役女子100 m栏国际健将级运动员为研究对象,采用视频图像解析法和跟踪调查法对其在2019-2021赛季关键技术指标的变化及专项训练方法进行研究,分析东京奥运周期我国女子100 m栏运动员整体成绩提升的内在原因,诊断现有技术环节中存在的不足,提出技术优化训练对策.结果表明,我国优秀女子100 m栏运动员2021赛季的全程速度、分段速度、栏间跑步长和步频、跨栏触地时间、过栏速度指标均显著优于2019和2020赛季.相比国外优秀运动员,我国运动员在最大速度、全程速度节奏、起跑加速、栏间跑节奏和跨栏步技术上均存在一定差距.建议采用高强度冲刺跑训练发展100 m栏运动员的最大速度能力,依据不同阶段的能量代谢规律和动力学特征调整速度节奏;固定起跑器位置和预备动作姿态,扩大脚掌与抵足板的接触面积,训练双脚同时蹬伸发力优化起跑技术;利用外视点限定步长,优化起跑至一栏的步长模式;依据阶梯式扩大栏间距训练原则开展栏间跑训练,使用小栏架训练控制栏间跑的步长,缩短小腿后摆幅度优化栏间跑技术;利用阻力跑练习产生后激活增强效应,提高起跨蹬地的输出功率优化过栏技术.
Taking Chinese current women's 100 m hurdles international athletic level athletes as the research object, this paper studies the changes of key technical indicators and special training methods in 2019-2021 season by using video image analysis and tracking investigation methods, analyzing the internal reasons for the improvement of the overall performance of Chinese women's 100 m hurdlers in Tokyo Olympic period, and diagnosing the deficiencies in the existing technical links, putting forward technical optimization training countermeasures. The results show that the indicators of 100 m hurdle speed, sectional speed, step length and stride frequency between hurdles, hurdle touchdown time and speed over the hurdle of Chinese elite athletes in 2021 season are significantly better than those in 2019 and 2020 seasons. Compared with foreign elite athletes, Chinese athletes have a certain gap in maximum speed, 100 m hurdle speed rhythm, starting acceleration, shuffling rhythm and hurdle step technique. It is suggested to adopt high-intensity sprint training to develop the maximum speed ability of 100 m hurdlers, and adjust the speed rhythm according to the law of energy metabolism and dynamic characteristics in different stages; fix the position and preparatory posture on the block, expanding the contact area between the sole of the foot and the block pedal, train two feet to pedal and stretch at the same time, optimize the starting the block starting technique; use the external viewpoint to limit the step length and optimize the step length pattern from the start to the first hurdle. According to the principle of stepped expansion of hurdle spacing training arrangements short distance hurdle training, use small hurdle training to limit the step length of shuffling between the hurdle, shorten the rear swing of the lower leg to optimize the shuffle technique; use the resistance hurdling exercise to produce the post-activation potentiation effect. It can improve the output power of taking-off to optimize the hurdle technique.

关键词(KeyWords): 女子100 m栏;运动技术诊断;起跑;栏间跑;跨栏技术
women's 100 m hurdles;sports technique diagnosis;block start;shuffling between the hurdle;hurdle technique

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 湖北省中央引导地方科技发展专项(2019ZYYD054)

作者(Authors): 程泓人;钟亚平;
Cheng Hongren;Zhong Yaping;Sports Big-data Research Center, Wuhan Sports University;

DOI: 10.16366/j.cnki.1000-2367.2022.05.021

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